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The Effects of Enforcement and Possession Laws on Youth Prevalence

Principal Investigator: Leonard Jason, Ph.D. , Professor
Publications Type: Journal Article
Author(s): Jason L.A., Pokorny S.B., Schoeny M.E.
Article Title: It is premature to abandon youth access to tobacco programs
Journal: Pediatrics
Volume/Issue/Pages: 111, 4: 920-921
Year: 2003
Abstract:
In a recent meta-analysis study, Fichtenberg and Glantz argue that youth access tobacco programs do not affect teen smoking prevalence because as fewer merchants sell tobacco to minors, teens will use social sources to obtain tobacco. They conclude, as well as in a recent editorial, that it is time to abandon youth access tobacco programs. The likely result of reversing this policy would be that the majority of merchants would once again sell minors tobacco, thereby providing them easy access to this dangerous substance. Previous studies that have investigated the relation of retail tobacco availability (RTA) to youth tobacco use have measured this factor as the proportion of retailers assessed who illegally sold cigarettes. Fichtenberg and Glantz concur that this is the most commonly used metric for assessing youth access programs, and if this is not an accurate reflection of youth access, "then none of the studies of youth access that base their effectiveness on merchant compliance are valid." Unfortunately, this approach does not account for the relative density of tobacco retailers in each community, which may affect the likelihood that a youth will encounter a retailer who is not compliant with the tobacco sales law.
Publications Type: Journal Article
Author(s): Jason L.A., Engstrom M.D., Pokorny S.B., Tegart G., Curie C.J.
Article Title: Putting the community back into prevention: Think locally, act globally
Journal: The Journal of Primary Prevention
Volume/Issue/Pages: 21, 1: 25-29
Year: 2000
Abstract:
No abstract available.
Publications Type: Journal Article
Author(s): Jason L.A., Pokorny S.B., Schoeny M.E.
Article Title: Evaluating the effects of enforcement and fines on youth smoking
Journal: Critical Public Health
Volume/Issue/Pages: 13, 1: 33-45
Year: 2003
Abstract:
Restricting access to retail sources of tobacco and fining minors for possession of tobacco products were evaluated as possible strategies to reduce the rising rates of teenage smoking. Four towns were assigned to enforce both tobacco minimum-age-of sales laws and tobacco possession laws (P). The remaining four towns were assigned to enforce only tobacco minimum-age-of sales laws (NP). Tobacco use among sixth-, seventh- and eighth-grade students was assessed. White youth who lived in communities with strict enforcement of tobacco sales and possession laws had significantly fewer increases in tobacco use than those living in communities with only moderate enforcement of tobacco sales laws. Public health interventions that involve police fining minors along with very high merchant compliance rates might decrease rates of tobacco use of white youth during a developmental time when they are susceptible to experimentation and use of tobacco products.
Publications Type: Journal Article
Author(s): Pokorny S.B., Jason L.A., Schoeny M.E.
Article Title: Effects of retail tobacco availability on initiation and continued cigarette smoking
Journal: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Volume/Issue/Pages: 32, 2: 193-204
Year: 2003
Abstract:
Used an ecological analysis employing multilevel random-effects regression analyses to model Level 1 (individual and social) and Level 2 (environmental) correlates of smoking initiation and continued smoking among 6th-, 7th-, and 8th-grade students. Data from 5,234 youth in 11 Midwestern communities were examined. Results indicate higher levels of retail tobacco availability (RTA) were associated with increased odds that a youth initiated smoking but not continued smoking. Among the Level 1 factors, youth who were older, male, had an adult tobacco user in the home, and had more peers who use tobacco had increased odds of initiating smoking. In contrast, only the presence of an adult tobacco user in the home and the number of peers who use tobacco were associated with increased odds that a youth continued smoking. Examining individual, social, and environmental factors simultaneously provides a clearer and more accurate model of these complex ecological influences.
Publications Type: Journal Article
Author(s): Pokorny S.B., Townsend S.M., Jason L.A., Lautenschlager H., Smith R.
Article Title: Measuring the quality of laws limiting youth access to tobacco
Journal: Journal of Prevention and Intervention in the Community
Volume/Issue/Pages: 24, 1: 15-27
Year: 2002
Abstract:
In response to the prevalence of tobacco use by minors, policy makers have sought more effective ways to use public policy to reduce tobacco use initiation and consumption and to promote smoking cessation. While various tools are available for assessing tobacco control laws, they are limited by a narrow focus on retail sales and omit many components of a comprehensive, ecological approach to tobacco control. This article presents a measure for rating laws designed to control youth access to tobacco. The measure evaluates components of laws pertaining to retailer licensing, tobacco sales to minors and compliance with sales laws, distribution andlocation of tobacco products, and youth possession of tobacco. Data are presented that indicate the measure can detect differences in the comprehensiveness of tobacco control laws and that it is a reliable measure.
Publications Type: Journal Article
Author(s): Jason L.A., Pokorny S.B., Curie C.J., Townsend S.M.
Article Title: Introduction: Preventing youth access to tobacco
Journal: Journal of Prevention and Intervention in the Community
Volume/Issue/Pages: 24, 1: 1-13
Year: 2002
Abstract:
In this volume, we will examine different components of a preventive public health intervention directed at reducing rates of youth smoking. The rationale for this intervention is presented as well as a review of the literature on this topic. Five data-based papers will provide readers with an overview of different aspects of this large community-based preventive intervention. One paper will examine the types of ordinances that communities have adopted and what our recommendations are for optimal tobacco control policies at the local level. A second paper will examine thereadiness of communities to begin the process of changing, and how that might be documented. Another domain we will investigate is whether the types of tobacco prevention programs in schools have an effect on youth smoking rates. We will also provide data about what influences a store merchant to actually illegally sell tobacco to minors. Finally, we will investigate whether youth who participate in tobacco purchase efforts become more likely to try smoking or whether their attitudes change as a function of participating in these programs. We conclude that effective programs are more likely to be comprehensive, sustainable, well planned, and coordinated at the local level.
Publications Type: Journal Article
Author(s): Engstrom M., Jason L.A., Townsend S.M., Pokorny S.B., Curie C.J.
Article Title: Community readiness for prevention: applying stage theory to multi-community interventions
Journal: Journal of Prevention and Intervention in the Community
Volume/Issue/Pages: 24, 1: 29-46
Year: 2002
Abstract:
This study presents an effort to adapt the community readiness model to a multi-community intervention to reduce youth access to tobacco. The background of the original community readiness model is outlined, and a behaviorally based adaptation specific to tobacco sales and tobacco possession enforcement is presented. Data on behaviorally based readiness ratings for 11 communities are presented. Correlational analyses indicate a significant relationship between ratings for sales enforcement readiness and the number of tobacco compliance checks conducted by the local police departments. The relationship between possession enforcement readiness and the rate of citations issued was in the expected direction, but was not significant. The results indicate that the behavioral adaptation of the community readiness model can: (a) provide a conceptual heuristic to understand community dynamics; (b) increase responsiveness to each community's unique needs; (c) measure changes over time; and (d) inform future intervention strategies with the community.
Publications Type: Journal Article
Author(s): Townsend S.M., Pokorny S.B., Jason L.A., Curie C.J., Schoeny M.E.
Article Title: An assessment of the relationship between the quality of school-based prevention programs and youth tobacco use
Journal: Journal of Prevention and Intervention in the Community
Volume/Issue/Pages: 24, 1: 47-61
Year: 2002
Abstract:
This study presents data from an assessment of substance use prevention programs in 23 elementary and middle schools in northernand central Illinois. The quality of prevention programming was assessed based on program intensity, focus on tobacco, staff resources designated for prevention programs, and implementation of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations for tobacco prevention. Data from these four dimensions were used to calculate a Quality Index Score. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between individual level variables, school level variables and the outcomes of reported current tobacco use, intent to use tobacco in the coming year, and perceived efficacy of substance use prevention programs. No significant effects were found, indicating that exclusive use of even high quality school-based prevention programs may not be sufficient in changing youth behavior. However, school-based prevention programs may be an important component of a broader ecological approach that uses multiple, communitywide strategies to promote normative change.
Publications Type: Journal Article
Author(s): Curie C.J., Pokorny S.B., Jason L.A., Schoeny M.E., Townsend S.M.
Article Title: An examination of factors influencing illegal tobacco sales to minors
Journal: Journal of Prevention and Intervention in the Community
Volume/Issue/Pages: 24, 1: 61-74
Year: 2002
Abstract:
This study examined factors that influence illegal tobacco sales to minors, such as buyer, clerk, and store characteristics. Thirty-seven youths made 314 attempts to purchase tobacco in 11 towns in Illinois. Purchase attempts were made from over-the-counter and vending machine vendors. Multilevel multivariate logistic regression analyses, which controlled for town clustering effects, were run to determine predictors of illegal sales to minors. Findings revealed that the strongest predictors ofselling cigarettes illegally to minors were clerks' failure to ask a minor for age or identification. The implications of using multivariate methods to identify factors influencing illegal tobacco sales are discussed.
Publications Type: Journal Article
Author(s): Ji P.Y., Pokorny S.B., Blaszkowski E., Jason L.A., Rabin-Belyaev O.
Article Title: Examining risks for minors participating in tobacco purchase attempts
Journal: Journal of Prevention and Intervention in the Community
Volume/Issue/Pages: 24, 1: 75-83
Year: 2002
Abstract:
This study aimed to provide empirical evidence to support previous research that participation in tobacco purchase attempt (TPA) procedures does not negatively impact minors' desire to initiate smoking habits or their willingness to discuss the dangers of smoking with peers and adults. Twenty-eight minors, who participated in TPAs, were compared to a group of eleven minors regarding whether or not they were smokers, whether or not they tried to get peers or adults to quit smoking, whether or not they tried to discuss with peers and adults about the dangers of smoking, and their perceptions of how easily it is to obtain tobacco products. Results demonstrated none of the minors in the TPA group initiated smoking, and there were not significant differences on most indicators regarding the frequency in which minors discussed the dangers of smoking with peersand adults. Minors in both groups perceived that they could easily obtain tobacco products. The findings suggest that participation in TPAs does not adversely affect minors' intentions to smoke or their desire to initiate discussions about the dangers of smoking with peers and adults.
Publications Type: Journal Article
Author(s): Jason L.A., Pokorny S.B., Schoeny M.E.
Article Title: A response to the critiques of youth access to tobacco programs
Journal: Journal of Prevention and Intervention in the Community
Volume/Issue/Pages: 24, 1: 85-93
Year: 2002
Abstract:
Several researchers within the anti-smoking community have recently claimed that youth access tobacco programs are ineffective and drain limited resources. They make these claims because they feel that youth access programs do not affect teen smoking prevalence. Others have argued that anti-smoking interventions should not fine minors for possession of tobacco. In this last article, we provide a response to these arguments.
Publications Type: Journal Article
Author(s): Pokorny S.B., Jason L.A., Schoeny M., Townsend S.M., Curie C.J.
Article Title: Do participation rates change when active consent procedures replace passive consent
Journal: Evaluation Review
Volume/Issue/Pages: 25, 5: 567-80
Year: 2001
Abstract:
Researchers face considerable ambiguity and controversy regarding the issue of informed consent. Decisions about consent procedures can affect study participation rates and prevalence estimates among specific populations. Changing from passive to active parental consent procedures was examined in a case study with an anonymous survey of sixth- through eighth-grade students' substance use. Four types of procedures for obtaining parental consent were examined. Results suggest that certain types of consent procedures can yield high levels of participation. This study also demonstrates that low participation rates with some active consent procedures can cause biases in sample characteristics and outcome data.
Publications Type: Journal Article
Author(s): Pokorny S.B., Jason L.A., Schoeny M., Curie C.J., Townsend S.M.
Article Title: Eliminating invalid self-report survey data
Journal: Psychological Reports
Volume/Issue/Pages: 89, 1: 166-8
Year: 2001
Abstract:
A sample of 6,370 students in Grades 6 to 8 completed a questionnaire on their attitudes and use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs. A subsample showed questionable data based on three criteria: missing responses, invalid responses, and inconsistent responses. Analysis indicated that this subsample was significantly different from the main group on demographic variables and self-reported life-time tobacco use. Results support efforts to identify and eliminate invalid data.
Publications Type: Journal Article
Author(s): Jason L.A., Pokorny S.B., Katz R.
Article Title: Passive versus active consent: A case study in school settings
Journal: Journal of Community Psychology
Volume/Issue/Pages: 29, 1: 53-68
Year: 2001
Abstract:
Considerable discussion has occurred over the past few years concerning the issue of passive versus active consent in psychological research involving children and adolescents. Some evaluators believe that passive consent should only be used in very restricted cases while other investigators are more comfortable in using passive consent that utilizes anonymous survey instruments which have minimal risk to the participants. The issue of passive versus active consent was examined in a case study involving youth access to tobacco study. Following the administration of questionnaires, one parent strongly objected to the use of passive consent. This issue was raised on-line via two electronic bulletin boards to solicit opinions concerning the ethics of using passive consent in this study. When these types of controversies occur, there are multiple points of view that need to be examined and considered. Issues involved in this controversy are discussed.
Publications Type: Journal Article
Author(s): Pokorny S.B., Engstrom M.D., Curie C., Jason L.A
Article Title: On shaping youth access policy: Lessons from the field
Journal: The Community Psychologist
Volume/Issue/Pages: 33, : 33-36
Year: 2000
Abstract:
No abstract available.
Publications Type: Journal Article
Author(s): Jason L.A., Curie C.J., Townsend S.M., Pokorny S.B., Katz R.B., Sherk J.L.
Article Title: Health promotion interventions
Journal: Child and Family Behavior Therapy
Volume/Issue/Pages: 24, 1-2: 67-82
Year: 2002
Abstract:
A large gap exists between research and practice in the development and implementation of validated school health prevention programs. This gap might be narrowed by developments in the emerging field of prevention science, which is making progress in evaluating health promotion and behavioral risk prevention programs. In this paper we review 4 areas from the prevention science field. They include: (1) promoting healthy behavior and preventing chronic health problems, (2) preventing substance abuse, (3) preventing high-risk sexual behaviors, and (4) preventing child physical and sexual abuse. Promising practices are described for each of these topics. Recommendations are made regarding strategies for implementing empirically validated programs, supplementing school programs with multi-level, ecological prevention strategies, and assessing schools' readiness to implement prevention programs.
Publications Type: Journal Article
Author(s): Jason L.A., Katz R., Pokorny S.B., Engstrom M., Tegart G., Curie C.
Article Title: The relationship between youth tobacco control enforcement and crime rates in a midwestern county
Journal: American Journal of Health Promotion
Volume/Issue/Pages: 14, 4: 229-231
Year: 2000
Abstract:
The crime rate in 29 counties was compared with the level of enforcement of laws restricting youth purchases. There was a linear relationship between crime rate and enforcement. Communities with the highest enforcement policies had the lowest crime rates.
Publications Type: Journal Article
Author(s): Ji P.Y., Pokorny S.B., Jason L.A.
Article Title: Factors influencing middle and high schools active parental consent return rates.
Journal: Evaluation Review
Volume/Issue/Pages: 28, 6: 578-591
Year: 2004
Abstract:
The authors examined factors influencing the return rates for attempting to collect active parental consent forms from 21,123 students in the 7th through 10th grades in 41 middle and high schools. Overall return rates from middle schools were higher than from high schools. Schools that offered high levels of staff support for collecting consent forms had higher return rates. Procedures where the consent form was attached to a school form that parents had to complete and return to the school yielded the highest return rate. Implications for how researchers can obtain a high parent consent form return rate are discussed.
Publications Type: Journal Article
Author(s): Jason L.A., Pokorny S.B., Sherk J.L., Helzing D.M., Rebus P.J.
Article Title: Selling tobacco to minors: Can merchants accurately determine a customer's age?
Journal: Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment
Volume/Issue/Pages: 8, 4: 67-73
Year: 2004
Abstract:
The present study investigated whether clerks in retail establishments that sell tobacco products can accurately estimate the age of a minor. Two Caucasian females, aged 16-years-old, participated as Field Agents in the present study. One Field Agent entered 49 retail establishments and the other Field Agent entered a different group of 51 retail establishments to conduct a tobacco compliance check. Later in the same day, each Field Agent entered the retail establishments that they had not previously sampled, and asked the clerk to estimate their age. Thirty-four percent of clerks rated the Field Agent as 18 years of age or older. This finding indicates that merchants are not accurate in assessing whether customers who are minors are of legal age to purchase tobacco.
Publications Type: Journal Article
Author(s): Pokorny S.B., Jason L.A., Helzing D.M., Sherk J., Rebus P.J., Kunz C., Rabin-Belyaev O., Ostergard A.,
Article Title: Efficient and effective uses of technology in community research.
Journal: Journal of Prevention and Intervention in the Community
Volume/Issue/Pages: 29, 1/2: 7-27
Year: 2005
Abstract:
This paper describes how a research team at DePaul University is applying recent advances in technology to facilitate the implementation of a large-scale, community research project. The application of technology by members of the social sciences has often focused on advances in computational technologies to provide faster and more sophisticated ways to analyze data. However, there is less documentation of how technology can provide opportunities to improve the way scientists conduct community research. Social and community interventions can profit from technological innovations to alleviate difficulties in collecting, processing, managing, archiving, and sharing data. If researchers within the field of community psychology become more knowledgeable and competent in the use of technology, larger and more complex projects can be implemented in an efficient and effective manner.
Publications Type: Journal Article
Author(s): Jason L.A., Pokorny S.B., Mikulski K., Schoeny M.
Article Title: Assessing storefront tobacco advertising after the billboard ban.
Journal: Evaluation and the Health Professions
Volume/Issue/Pages: 27, 1: 22-33
Year: 2004
Abstract:
This study examined storefront tobacco advertisements in 11 towns in Illinois from 1999 through 2001 to assess possible changes in these types of advertisements since the master tobacco settlement, which banned tobacco advertisements on billboards. Observers assessed the number of merchant- and industry-made tobacco storefront advertisements in Illinois stores and whether these advertisements were either brand- or price-focused. The relationship between the amount of tobacco advertisements and underage tobacco sales to minors was also explored. Findings indicated no significant relationships between tobacco advertisements and underage tobacco sales. However, industry price advertisements decreased over time because of tobacco price increases resulting from the master settlement, whereas industry brand advertisements increased over time, perhaps in an effort by the tobacco industry to retain sales of their products through brand recognition.
Publications Type: Journal Article
Author(s): Pokorny S.B., Jason, L.A., Shoeny M.
Article Title: Current Smoking among Young Adolescents:Assessing School-based Contextual Norms
Journal: Tobacco Control
Volume/Issue/Pages: 13, 3: 301-307
Year: 2004
Abstract:
Objective: To extend research on the relation of school based contextual norms to current smoking among adolescents by using three analytic techniques to test for contextual effects. It was hypothesised that significant contextual effects would be found in all three models, but that the strength of these effects would vary by the statistical rigor of the model. Design: Three separate analytic approaches were conducted on baseline self report student survey data from a larger study to test the relation between school level perceived peer tobacco use and individual current smoking status. Participants: A representative sample of 5399 sixth through eighth grade students in 14 midwestern middle schools completed the survey. All enrolled sixth through eighth grade students were eligible to participate in the survey. The student participation rate was 91.4% for the entire sample, and did not differ significantly between the schools (range 82–100%). Main outcome measure: Thirty day cigarette smoking prevalence. Results: A level 2 only model based on aggregated individual responses indicated that students in schools with higher average reported peer tobacco use were more likely to be current smokers than students in schools with lower average peer tobacco use. Using a level 1 only model based on individual responses indicated that the effect of school level perceived peer tobacco use on current smoking was significant when individual perceived peer tobacco use was excluded from the model but was non-significant when individual perceived peer tobacco use was added to the model. A multilevel model also indicated that the effect of school level perceived peer tobacco use on current smoking was not significant when individual perceived peer tobacco use was added to the model. Conclusion: The analytic approach used to examine contextual effects using individuals’ reports of peer tobacco use norms that were aggregated to obtain a context measure of the school norms may produce statistical artefacts that distort the association of the school context in general, and peer tobacco use norms in particular, with increased risk for current smoking beyond the risk associated with individual factors
Publications Type: Journal Article
Author(s): Jason L.A., Pokorny S.B., Kunz C., Adams M.
Article Title: Maintenance of Community Change: Enforcing Youth Access to Tobacco Laws
Journal: Journal of Drug Education
Volume/Issue/Pages: 34, 2: 105-119
Year: 2004
Abstract:
Youth access to tobacco remains a significant problem for this nation. Methods have been developed to reduce youth access to commercial outlets and these involve enforcement efforts of monitoring and fining merchant offenders. In the present study, over a three year period of time, readiness to participate in these types of enforcement programs were assessed in 11 communities. Several years after the research study was completed, enforcement activities were re-assessed. Findings indicated that those communities that had made the largest changes in community readiness to enforce youth access laws during the three year intervention were the ones most likely to continue enforcement activities into the follow-up period. There is a need to better understand how youth access to tobacco community-based interventions can be maintained.

 
   
 
 
     
   
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