Key Researchers

  • Treatment benefits include increases in employment income and decreases in avoided costs of criminal activities, incarceration, and hospitalization (Ettner et al., 2006).

    The economic benefits found in the CalTOP analysis included significant increases in employment income ($3,352) and significant decreases in avoided costs associated with victimization from criminal activities (-$3,019), additional costs associated with crimes (-$2,657), incarceration (-$1,788), and use of emergency departments (-$223) (Ettner et al., 2006).



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A National Program supported by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation with direction and technical assistance provided by the Center for Creative Leadership.
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